Install Ubuntu Server on Fusion PRO


  • VMWare Fusion PRO 10.0.1
  • Ubuntu package: ubuntu-14.04.1-server-amd64.iso

How to install a fresh Ubuntu Server

  • Open VMware Fusion > New > Install from disc or image > [ Continue ]
  • Drag and Drop the Ubuntu Image ubuntu-14.04.1-server-amd64.iso already stored into your computer > [ Continue ]
  • Use Easy Install (checked), Display Name: your_name, Account Name: ubuntu_user, Password: ubuntu_password, Confirm Password: ubuntu_password > [ Continue ]
  • [ Customize Settings ] > Save As: custom_name > [ Save ]
  • [ Finish ]
  • From menu chose Virtual Mashine > Setings…
  • Processors & Memory: 1 vCPU, 4G RAM, Advanced Options and check Enable hypervisor applications in this virtual machine
  • Existing NIC used for internet connectivity will be mapped to eth0: Network Adapter > Share with my Mac
  • New NIC used for other purposes will be mapped to eth1: [ Add Device ] >  Network Adapter > vmnet3
  • Delete Camera
  • Delete Printer
  • Power ON the VM and wait for the easy installation. Chose eth0 as the Primary network interface.

Connect using SSH >> ERROR

Check ifconfig

silvia@ubuntu :~$ ifconfig
eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:0c:29:5f:59:4b 
 inet addr: Bcast: Mask:
               ^-- got this IP address form Fusion DHCP
 inet6 addr: fe80::20c:29ff:fe5f:594b/64 Scope:Link
 RX packets:86448 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
 TX packets:11662 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
 collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000 
 RX bytes:118763956 (118.7 MB) TX bytes:1141495 (1.1 MB)

lo Link encap:Local Loopback 
 inet addr: Mask:
 inet6 addr: ::1/128 Scope:Host
 RX packets:34 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
 TX packets:34 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
 collisions:0 txqueuelen:0 
 RX bytes:2632 (2.6 KB) TX bytes:2632 (2.6 KB)

When trying to connect using ssh you will get an error. This is normal as ssh server is not installed.

Murgescus-MacBook-Pro:~ silvia$ ssh silvia@

ssh: connect to host port 22: Connection refused

Murgescus-MacBook-Pro:~ silvia$

Install a ssh-server

  • Update repositories
silvia@ubuntu :~$ sudo apt-get update
  • And again
silvia@ubuntu :~$ sudo apt-get upgrade
  • Install ssh-server
silvia@ubuntu :~$ apt-get install openssh-server

Connect using SSH >> SUCCESS

Murgescus-MacBook-Pro:~ silvia$ ssh silvia@
The authenticity of host ' (' can't be established.
ECDSA key fingerprint is SHA256:YCEkSF7rhHph60SRWGbfhHm2lRau5wUpPgjH2VqzMhA.
Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes
Warning: Permanently added '' (ECDSA) to the list of known hosts.
silvia@'s password:
Welcome to Ubuntu 14.04.1 LTS (GNU/Linux 3.13.0-32-generic x86_64)

* Documentation:
Last login: Wed Dec 13 06:07:12 2017

Do you need to configure the network adapters? Find here the solution.

S6: Hardware Limitation and Planning

LAB Diagram and Devices BOM

My intention is to build and test the labs presented in MPLS in SDN Era Book:

As shown in the network diagram the BOM consist of:

  • 10 x Junos Logical Systems Devices: 2xH, 2xCE, 2xPE, 2xBR, 1xRR, 1xP
  • 4 x IOS XRv Virtual Routers Devices: 2xPE, 1xRR, 1xP

Note: H/CE/BR devices can be built also using simple instance-type virtual routers as no additional inside virtualization is needed.

  • 6 x Junos Routing Instances instance-type virtual routers: 2xH, 2xCE, 2xBR
  • 4 x Junos Logical Systems Devices: 2xPE, 1xRR, 1xP
  • 4 x IOS XRv Virtual Routers Devices: 2xPE, 1xRR, 1xP

Continue reading

Full Clone XRv VM with Fusion PRO

For different labs we might need to duplicate VMs: more IOS XR virtual routers, more vSRX Firewalls, etc.

Here is the procedure needed to multiply IOS XRv VMs. The same procedure can be used for any VM we need to safe or multiply.

1. Full Clone XRv VM

1. Open VMWare Fusion UI > Right Click on existing IOS XRv VM > Create Full Clone

2. Rename the new created VM

3. Edit .vmx configuration file and modify the console port

serial0.fileName = "telnet://

Note: each cloned VM will have different generated MAC addresses.

4. Turn ON the cloned VM.

2. Problem

If I try to power ON too many VMs, I get the “Not Enough Memmory” error.

It is very important the order of the VM I turn ON and the hardware planification.

Cisco SDR and VDC Features

For the SkyLifter project I wish to implement some additional virtualization features. What are Cisco Virtualization options?

  • VRF Lite
  • SDR – Secure Domain Router
  • VDC – Virtual Device Context

VRF Lite

By default a router uses a single global routing table that contains all the directly connected networks and prefixes that it learned through static or dynamic routing protocols.

VRFs are like VLANs for routers, instead of using a single global routing table we can use multiple virtual routing tables. Each interface of the router is assigned to a different VRF.

VRFs are commonly used for MPLS deployments, when we use VRFs without MPLS then we call it VRF lite.

Secure Domain Router (SDR)

Cisco IOS XR Software includes support for an HVR technology known as Secure Domain Routers (SDRs).

The HVR technology dedicates both control plane and data plane resources on a per-module boundary to individual virtual entities, so there is no sharing of either control plane or data plane resources. It is sometimes said that the only resource HVRs share is sheet metal. A lightweight shim layer provides low-level communication between HVRs, who otherwise believe they are independent router entities. Because of dedicated control plane and data plane resources, software applications and forwarding hardware need not implement virtualization. This separation effectively eliminates arbitration for resources between virtual routing entities.

Secure domain routers (SDRs) provide a means of partitioning a router into multiple, independent routers. SDRs perform routing functions in the same manner as a physical router but share resources with the rest of the system. For example, the applications, configurations, protocols, and routing tables assigned to an SDR belong to that SDR only, but other functions such as chassis control, switch fabric, and partitioning are shared with the rest of the system.

SDRs provide full isolation between virtualized routing instances through the use of Distributed Route Processors (DRPs) for extra control plane resources. SDRs are defined on per-slot boundaries, with entire Route Processors (RPs) and Modular Services Cards (MSCs) dedicated to an SDR. Figure below depicts the deployment of SDRs on a Cisco CRS-1 Carrier Routing System running Cisco IOS XR Software.


Note: SDR is only available on IOS-XR devices 12K, ASR 9K, CRS. It isn’t usefull for my SkyLifter lab.

You can find more info about Cisco SDR on Cisco White Paper Router Virtualization in Service Providers

Virtual Device Context

Cisco NX-OS introduces support for virtual device contexts (VDCs), which allows the switches to be virtualized at the device level. Each configured VDC presents itself as a unique device to connected users within the framework of that physical switch. The VDC runs as a separate logical entity within the switch, maintaining its own unique set of running software processes, having its own configuration, and being managed by a separate administrator.

Note: This feature looks like Juniper Logical System feature but it is not supported by IOS XRv. It isn’t usefull for my SkyLifter lab.

You can find more info about VDC on Cisco White Paper Technical Overview of Virtual Device Contexts

Junos vMX Router on VMWare Fusion

I have successfully installed vMX and used it in my labs following the procedure describer into Day One: vMX Up and Running book. But I am curious to see if the installing procedure used for IOS XRv can be used also for the new Nested vMX router from Juniper Networks.

I am still having some trouble with some errors. Maybe it is a resource limitation. I will update the article if I find a solution to make it up and running.
Continue reading

Cisco IOS XRv Basic Info

Cisco IOS XRv Router Overview

The Cisco IOS XRv Router is a Virtual Machine (VM) based platform running 32-bit IOS XR software with the QNX microkernel. This VM contains a single route processor (RP) with control plane functionality, and line card (LC) network interfaces with their associated functionality. It is a representation of the IOS XR software and operating system, including manageability, control plane features, routing and forwarding functionality. The Cisco IOS XRv Router is not an emulation of any physical router or hardware component.
Continue reading